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Colombia’s mental health services have a complex history shaped by 60 years of armed conflict, a predominantly clinical approach to mental health, and social factors such as ineq- uities and stigma. The 1990 Caracas declaration proposed a shift towards decentralised community mental health services and interventions based on the recovery approach and emphasis on social determinants of mental health in the Americas. Colombia has adopted these approaches in its legal and practical framework in recent years, but implementation has been uneven. This systematic review aims to contribute to mental health services understanding in Colombia by examining the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health services in Colombia. A search was conducted to explore available peer- reviewed studies on Colombian mental health services across five databases (Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Scielo and BVS) on quantitative and qualitative research papers pub- lished in the last ten years and without language restrictions. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to structure the analysis and identify barriers and facilitators during the implementation of mental health services. We adapted the CFIR to attend to gender, race and age informed by the Socio-Political Economy of Global Mental Health framework, given the importance of these factors to the Colombian health landscape. Finally, narrative synthesis was used to summarise the data. 1 530 records were identified, and 12 articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. 8 papers described substance use disorders services, 11 involved multidisciplinary healthcare pro- fessionals, and 7 were implemented at a local scale. The primary barriers to implementation were the lack of coordination, high workloads, and low funding. Facilitators included the use of protocols, and the involvement of communities, stakeholders, users, and external cham- pions. Findings suggest the continued importance of community and recovery approaches and efforts to improve coordination between multi-sector actors involved in the mental health spaces (e.g., public, and private organisations, users and their families).